Maoism is an intellectual and political school, about which different definitions are presented. As stated by one of the description, "Maoism is MaoT-se-Tung's thoughts, founder of communist party in China, as ideology and strategy for revolution and conformity of Marxism-Leninism over China's situations. Mao also, compiled Modern Democratic revolution policy as well as [communist] revolution tactic and strategy in colonized and semi-colonized countries."(1)
Commencement of dispute in international communist movement and appearance of Maoism
The gap in international communist movement came about in the beginning of Communist party victory in China led by "Mao Tse-tung". USSR firstly recognized People's Republic of China de facto and not completely. Mao Tse-tung announced the establishment of People's Republic of China on Miza (Mehr) 10th 1328(1950) solar calendar = (October 1st 1949), sending a friendly message to the leader of USSR "Joseph Stalin" at his earliest convenience in his first week of triumph, expressing his willingness for close and brotherly relationship with the first Socialist country in the world, on the other hand, Stalin, after nearly twenty days, replied his message icily and recognized Communist regime de jure. (2)
The USSR procrastination to recognize officially People's Republic of China reveals the existence of disagreements between Mao and Stalin prior to victory of Communist Party in China, this issue was confirmed when Mao told to an English journalist in an interview "USSR government has never assisted us effectively through our struggle even betrayed us several times, because this country's leaders granted themselves a kind of superiority and privileges, and got outraged since we did not pay attention to their wrong guidance and advice", after thirteen years establishment of People's Republic of China.(3)
At the beginning, Mao tried to have good relationship with USSR in order to prosper that country's economic and technical assists, despite of contradictions between Communist party in China and USSR earlier than the triumph of the communist in China. This is why the contradictions of the two countries did not become evident while Stalin was alive and Mao tolerated Stalin's disfavor and underestimate. China and USSR's conflicts became overt at the World Communist Parties Summit Convention held on the occasion of fortieth anniversary of Socialist Revolution victory in 1336 ( November,1957) in Moscow. "Nikita Khrushchev" the leader of USSR, mooted three new political principles of USSR as follows:
1- The independence, integration and essential consensus of Communist Parties.
2- Communist Parties leading by USSR to achieve the objective of a Socialist system formation.
3- Peaceful coexistence with all countries, having different political systems, in the world.
Mao Tse-tung opposed Khrushchev's principles and they made caustic remarks to each other. Mao suggested the principle of "Democratic Concentration" against the principle of Communist Parties independence, integration and essential consensus, and advised that total essential resolutions in a Communist society should be examined and confirmed in an organization called "New international" composed of world communist parties with the right of veto. Mao's purpose was to limit the dominance of USSR on other countries' Communist parties.
He also disapproved the principle of world Communist Parties ruling by USSR, declaring not accept the rule of older brother of USSR. Additionally, he rejected severely the principle of peaceful coexistence because he considered that understanding and reconciliation with Capitalist countries, cooperation with capitalist countries was recognized as treason to bourgeoisie and Marxism-Leninism desire in his opinion, and said "American Imperialism is a paper tiger and USSR should not be afraid of facing with it. (4) "When Khrushchev refused Mao's speech saying "this paper tiger (America) has the power of atomic bomb."Mao remarked," in case half of the world population perishes, the victory of Socialism will supply the rest of the globe's inhabitants with comfort and prosperity, the casualties resulted from an atomic war can be compensated within half, or at most one century and a better world will be made."(5)
The intense of cruelty and human burning characteristics of the communists are shown by Mao's remarks, indicating what dreadful counter-human crimes have been committed by Mao and his friends in China for earthly reforms and Cultural Revolution, killing millions of Chinese peasants, landlords, cultural, political people and etc, similar to what Stalin had mercilessly done earlier than Mao in USSR.
Only remembering murders committed by Mao's wife, Jiang Qing and her associate, the wife of China's intelligence organization chairman, who was a very hardhearted lady, is terrorizing which is considered nothing compared to murders carried out by Communist regime Red Guard, and its other security forces, regardless of proletarian suffocation, a small part of them is recorded in history. Shocking to say that Mao was strongly opposed to ancient culture and art for being reactionary and aristocratic, and modern culture and civilization for being related to West. Red Guard in China struggled with science, art and civilization manifestation in an exceptional way in the history, resembling to murders executed during Genghis Khan Period. Counter-science, culture, and civilization campaigns related to Taliban in Afghanistan are probably not comparable to twentieth century's Genghis actions in China. In any case, Moscow and Beijing disagreements were the topic of discussion, which became evident after Communist Parties Summit Convention in 1336 LHY (1957) and gradually intensified. Mao named USSR as Social Imperialism, and its leaders as revisionists. He thought of parliamentary campaigns as means of acquisition of power by reactionary regimes, and believed in ireful and armed warfare, in a speech he said "Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun." Mao Tse-Tung's main Political Campaign Policies included three following slogans:
1- Long term and enraged mass (people) war.
2- Siege of cities via villages.
3- Outstanding rule of peasants in revolution victory.
Bipartisanship in Communist movement entered at the start of Communist Party victory in China, but apparently, opened after Stalin's death, Beijing condemned Moscow's interferences in other countries affairs through supporting Communist Parties and revolting. Conflicts in International Communist movement increased resulting from Mao's three world presentation dividing Communism world into three Moscow, Beijing and Albany directions, since Anvar Khojeh Albanian Communist leader rejected Mao's three world theory and recommended two word theory. Mao's three world theory offered in 1343 LHY (1964) is as follows:
1- First world is the exploitative world including two powers of the time, United States and Former Soviet Union.
2- Second world including advanced European countries and Japan, which produced surplus of their needs.
3- Third world including backward countries, whose products did not meet their immediate needs and requirements, while their raw materials and underground wealth were plundered due to the lack of capital and technology.
In accordance with three world theory, there was a reconcilable clash between first and second world, in case of being solved both world could form a united political, economical and military front under the leadership of China against first world, United State and the Former Soviet Union.
Irrespective of Mao Tse-Tung's unfounded and baseless theory the Maoists and Communists difficulties had expanded dimensions, which is beyond the scope of this writing. What briefly stated was merely for clarification of circumstances of difficulties in International Communist Movement, and later on intensified, in addition to Chinese and USSR's leaders Anvar Khojeh, the leader of Communist Party in the poor country of Albany made a huge claim but did not attain a good position.
Maoism current affairs in Afghanistan
Some cases concerning Mao's main campaign principles and theory were mentioned in inspection of International Communist Movement conflicts section, but Maoists introduce Dr, Abdul-Ar-Rahman Mahmoodi as the founder of Maoist current in Afghanistan, but he, as the leader of unofficial People's (Khalgh) party during Shah Mahmood Khan's chancellery, not only made any speech about Maoism, but also sarcastically, openly or frankly did not write or speak regarding Marxism principle. Abul Rahman took part in seventh round of the national Consultative Assembly (majles) election and became a member of Parliament, versus Mao's opinion, who thought of Parliamentary campaigns as vain in Afghanistan. Maoists, in addition, introduce Sarvar Joya and Barat Ali Taj as founders of Communism and Marxism-Leninism in Afghanistan. Chinese revolution gained its victory 32 years after Russian Socialist revolution, it is evident that Maoists entered international arenas later; therefore, Maoists came to Afghanistan following Moscow's depended Communists. Maoists, from the beginning, showed argumentative and extremist behaviors, resulting from personal complexes, individual feelings and Mao's ideological teaching, penetrated in middle class people and dependent agents to ethnical minorities quickly. They were reflecting the intensity of Mao's differences with USSR Communist party summits in words and manners, and publicizing and disclosing against various wings of People's Democratic Party.
Maoists pressured dependent groups to Moscow in 1349LHY (1971) and 1348LHY(1970) demonstrations, battled with Muslim Youth Group (Ekhvaniha) in Kabul, especially on university campus in 1351LHY(1973), resultant " Seidal Sokhandan's murder", a founder of Maoist group called "Modern Democratic Society". Some members of leadership council of Muslim Youth, among them Mr, Hekmatyar was arrested and jailed in charge of Seidal's murder.
The internal conflicts among Maoists opened publicly after the closure of Modern Democratic Society's weekly publication "Eternal Flame (Sholeh Javid)" and their defeat in street wars against Muslim Youth group ended up in political and organizational collapse of them, yet Maoist thought did not come to end but several other wings and parties rose gradually.
Maoism followers were active in political, military, and particularly cultural areas under different titles independently or supported by groups called Islamic institutions, after Communist coup on 27th April, 1478(seventh of Saor, 1357LHY). Shiites societies in Afghanistan experienced more destructive effects of Maoists compared to other societies in the country, the significant reason for that is the Maoists abuse of Shiites national, religious deprivations and worsening racial and ethnical differences through intellectual and cultural way rising from Moghulist theory.
The circumstances of Maoist movements formation, their differences and functions will be reviewed following the aforementioned introduction. However, considering the complexities and multiplicity of Maoist groups and limited, incomplete information about them, it is acknowledged not to be easy to examine these groups comprehensively, and the writer is not able to succeed in doing it.
Author: Sayed Mohammad Baqer Mesbahzadeh