By;Sayed Mohammad Baqer Mesbahzadeh
Islamic Party of Afghanistan, known as "Ikhvan-al-Muslemin" movement, under the leadership of Mr. Golbedin Hekmatyar, is one of two significant wings of Sunnite Islamic movement in Afghanistan, formed in late 1969(1347LHY)in Kabul University. This movement was posed for discussion, after a demonstration by Muslim students for Communists affront to the holy Quran. On Friday night, 21st of Ramadan 1971(1349LHY), Communists students threw out the dignified Quran from the third floor of Kabul university dormitory with the objective of offense to this divine book. Muslim Students demonstrated toward Afghanistan National Council to protest against this indecent act of Communists, moreover, the screen of a movie, namely "Godlessness", in Polytechnic Institute and the glorification of "Flag" publication on the occasion of Lenin's 100th birthday, outraged people, especially theologians and scholars of religious sciences, who took refuge in the Pul Kheshti Great Mosque in protest of Communists operation, government indifference and the king, but security forces attacked to the Mosque, arrested and scattered them at midnight of May 4th 1970(1349/2/14LHY). following the aforesaid events, Abul Rahim Niyazi, SaifoDin Nosratyar, Golbodin Hekmatyar and ….made their attempts to continue Muslim Students demonstrations with other classes of people, both Sunnis and Shiites, by participation on different occasions, hence, Sunnite Islamic movement became famous as " Muslim Youth" in Kabul University.
It seems that the first flash of friction in Sunnite Islamic movement, "Ekhvano-al-Muslemin" at the beginning of its formation appeared in Kabul after Abdul Rahim Niyzi's decease, as Golbidin Hekmatyar has stated, Borhanodin Rabani's wing was not present during the first meeting, held on Mizan (Mehr) (12th,1972) 1350LHY in Polytechnic Mosque in Kabul, to form the leadership council. The meeting was formed with the presence of Habib Al Rahman, Polytechnic student, Molavi Habib al Rahman, Religious laws professor, Professor Gholam Abbas Atish, Saifodin Nosratyar and Golbodin Hekmatyar. When Mohammad Davood Khan came to power subsequent to the coup on 26th Saratan, (1974)1352LHY, "Ekhvano-al-Muslemin" movement was accused of Davood Khan's regime overthrown, and in Jawza (Khordad) 1975(1353LHY) some of the officials of this movement along with 300 members were captured, including professor Gholam Mohammad Niyzai, Abdul Rasul Sayaf, Rabani Atish, Abdul Ghader Tavana, professor Said Rahman, professor Sarboland Khan, Dr.Shamsol Hagh and Abdul Shakoor, medical science students in Nangarhar, Molavi Mohammad Nasim, Sayyid Omar Shareghi, Sayyid Ahamad, Mohammad Aman engineer, and professor Mir Angal. Gobodin Hekmatyar, Molavi Habib al Rahman and Borhanodin Rabani sought asylum in Pakistan tribal areas, having been supported by the prime minister of Pakistan, Zolfaghar Ali Buthu, and Pakistan Islamic Community Party, they implemented a wide military operation fighting with Mohammad Davood Khan's regime under Hekmatyar's direction in Nangarhar, Laghman, Paktiya and Panjshir areas, with the assistance of Pakistanis, which was defeated, ended in nine casualties and 282 arrests of the movement members. The commander of the operation was Ahmad Shah Masood. The Sunnite Islamic Movement detached into two opponent groups namely Islamic Party, declaring Hamal(Farvardin)1970(1348LHY) to be the establishment date, and Islamic Society, stating 1974(1352LHY)as their establishment date, following the unsuccessful operation in 1976(1354LHY).
Islamic Party of Afghanistan became one the most significant and powerful Jehadi groups after Communist coup in Sawr 1979(1357LHY), attracted Pakistanis particularly, the president of the country, Ziaol Hagh's special attention. As claimed by opponent groups, 60 % of American and Arabic counties armament and military aids which transferred to Mojahedins via Pakistan were delivered to Hekmatyar's Islamic Party during Jehad periods. Provided this case to be true, it is not only related to Hekmatyar's good relations and other considerations with Pakistanis, but also, to great extent, due to Islamic Party's relative organizational stability, power and Hektmatyar's management. Non-Muslim and other non-Islamic Movement members could not easily join Islamic Party, since it was more integrated and intensified organization compared to other Islamic Parties during Jehad time. Emir (ruler) was the highest position of the Party, dominating the whole organs, the deputy of the party, being the Emir's deputy as well, considered as the most qualified person in the Islamic Party organization is being held personally liable for the Emir of the party.
In spite of unified organization of Afghanistan Islamic Party, there were disagreements and segregations in the party since its inception, Molavi Mohammad Yunes Khales separated in Jadi (Dey) 1979 (1357LHY) who had problems with Hekmatyar on the issue of leadership and Emirat (ruling), but continued his activities under the name of Afghanistan Islamic Party. In 1986(1364LHY), Ghazi Mohammad Amin Voghad, called Melatyar as well, detached from Islamic Party under the title of "Islamic Mojahedins Solidarity Motive of Afghanistan"(Daiyeh Etehad Islami Mojehedin Afghanistan) in the same year. Molavi Jamil al Rahman split too, set up a group named "Invited Community to Quran language"(Jamaat al Davat elal Quran al sonah) in Konar province, east of Afghanistan. Nevertheless, other members including commanders, Mohammad Balal Neiram, commander Didar, Dr. Shams, Ghazi Abdul Rahim Kashkaki, and …., left Islamic Party, and this process went on until the last separation by Homayoon Jarir and Vahid alla Sabavoon prior to Taliban collapse, the main body of Islamic Party joined Taliban due to ethnical affiliation.
The leader of Islamic Party, Hekmatyar, was opposed to United States attack to Afghanistan, took Taliban's side, has been involved in military actions against foreign forces and Karzai's government so far 2008(1386LHY). Under these conditions, some Islamic Party members, in their own opinions, have deposed Hekmatyar and joined the government.
Ideologically and politically, Islamic Party was one of the most radical Islamic Sunnite Party in Afghanistan during Jehad periods, and desired to establish an Islamic rule on the basis of Hanafite's jurisprudence, have expressed their objection to imperious and arrogant East and West powers throughout fighting periods. Although this group benefited more assistance of the United States and the West, indirectly, than other groups within Jehad period, but always disagreed with their presence in Afghanistan, and reproached the so-called nationalist groups and Zaher Shah's supporters because of their dependencies on West. Hekmatyar wrote regarding this issue: We consider no difference between dependency on East to dependency on the West; we grant no difference between Babrak and any other one introduced by Americans and Westerns".
Unfortunately, Islamic Party was used, desired or undesired, to provide the backgrounds for the achievement of the United States and Pakistan's goals in Afghanistan, because of leadership's political and ideological weaknesses, after the expiration of its validity date form the mentioned countries point of view, the party was vanished by the formation of Taliban movement. The leader of Islamic Party could not, firstly, understand and analyze correctly the long term aims of the United States and Pakistan in the region and Afghanistan; secondly, he could not scarify ethnical authoritarianism, collective and personal autocracy, which were in conflict with Islamic ideology of the Party, to Islamic movement, thus, was defeated with its all competence and power, and took part next to other so-called Jehadi Parties and groups in sacrifice of Jehad and Islamic movement of Afghanistan's people.
Although, Islamic Party made irretrievable and burdensome mistakes, it is not fair to ignore the report card of this party during Jehad periods. They drew serious attention to intellectual and cultural issues beside political and military ones, and educated many people in different majors in Pakistan and European countries, and in case of controlling the government, they were rich in human resources. Hekmatyar, the leader of Islamic Party, endeavored to cultural issues, personally, having published over 33 publications up to that time. This party would publish numerous publications in different languages. Shahadat (Martyrdom) publication, Islamic Party's publication organ in Farsi and Pashto started in 1979(1357LHY), Shafagh (Twilight) publication in Farsi and Pashto in 1982(1360LHY) in Pishavar, Hejrat (emigration) in Farsi and Pashto in Urdu, Islamic women's message, Freedom, Alsobh(morning) (published in Europe), Mojahedin magazine in English, Almoghef magazine in Arabic, Albadr publication in Netherlands, Freedom courier, Vahdat(unity) magazine in Turkish in German, Aljehad magazine in Arabic in Pishavar, Culture magazine in German in Germany, Afghan Mojahed in Dutch in Netherlands, Rah Hagh (right way) in Tehran, Misagh Isar (self-sacrifice promise) in Tehran, Ghiyam 24 Hut (24th of Hut uprising) in Heart, and ….were published on behalf of Islamic Party.
Islamic Party was one the two powerful parties militarily, which had military bases nearly in all Afghanistan provinces. Toran Amaonalla Khan and engineer Mohammad Asef Hekmat in Maidan, Vardak, Haji Mohammad Moslem Yar and Bashir Baghlani in Baghlan, Seiyed Jamal and Molavi and Mohammad Joya in Takhar, Molavi Kheradmand, Abdul Hai Shaida and professor Abdul Vadood in Badakhshan, Seiyed Hashem Vahdatyar in Zabul, commanders Abdul Karim a Pahlavan(hero) Joma Gol in Heart, Mohammad Khaled Farughi in Paktiya, Professor Zahed Ebrahimi and Fazl Hagh in Nangarhar, Professor Farid in Kapisa, Haji Askar and Haji Sarkateb in Ghandarhar, engineer Faiz Mohammad in Paktia, Mostafa Badr, in Lugar and ….were recognized commanders and officials of Islamic Party of Afghanistan.