Afghan Mellat was initially composed of remained ones from awake youth party, pro-socialism leftists (Marxists and Russians fans) and extremist Pashtuns. They were all common in Pashtun nationalism chieftaincy and ethnic override. At that time forming great Afghanistan, nationalizing Pashtu language and social democracy were the main goals of the Afghan Mellat.
Afghan Mellat weekly of which the man of authority was Eng. Ghulam Mohammad Farhad and was managed jointly by Qudratolah Hadad, Farhad’d brother and Mr. Habibulah Rafei was the Afghan Mellat party publication. The weekly started its activations in April 1966 and was closed due to an article published in 12th May 1967 about CIA penetration in outstanding officials in the government.
Social Democrat Society found fame as its magazine name, i.e. Afghan Mellat weekly like other political groups in Afghanistan. The weekly was republished 9 months after suspension and continued to publish until 1971.
About Social Democrat Society the book "Commencement and Consequences of Political Movements in Afghanistan" says: Social Democrat Society entangled in differences after its leader Eng. Ghulam Mohammad Farhad was elected as member of parliament in 13th national assembly in 1969 from a district in Kabul.
In contrary to its party politic which opposed relatively democratic governments he voted for Nurahmad Etemadi’s cabinet. At the national assembly secession held in November 1969 he criticized former justice minister and accused him of not having enough religious beliefs. He also criticized closing Afghan Mellat weekly just before the election and spoke of national unity and coordination between the nation and the government.
He invited Afghans media to support Arabs in their fight against Israel and said that the Jewish had insulted Islam’s holies and both Sunnis and Shia’s share in their insult. He said when Islam is insulted death is prior to life.
Eng. Ghulam Mohammad Farhad’s speech in the parliament, based on Islam and religious beliefs was not welcomed by leftists and radical fascists. This resulted in opposing him by many high ranking members of Afghan Mellat party.
Eng. Ghulam Mohammad Farhad’s speech and positions led to split in Afghan Mellat. Some of the members put aside the political activities and some others published a weekly entitled “Afghan” in 6th December 1971 in which Mohammad Yousef Volsmol was the man of authority and manager.
This group advocated Parliamentary democracy through revising internal politics. They also were loyal to pro-Pashtunism and supporting Pashtunestan. Another group established Mellat weekly in 26 September 1971 in which Feda Mohammad Fedaei was the man of authority and Habibulah Rafei was the manager.
Mellat weekly was closed due to criticizing the government policies on Pahtunestan conflict. The mentined grouped named as Mellat group was the left side of the Afghanistan at that time. How ever this group was not as ethnic extremist as Afghan Mellat. By the way some members also continued to cooperate with Eng. Ghulam Mohammad Farhad the founder of the Afghan Mellat.
After Daoud Khan’s coup in 1973 the Afghan Mellat and its split groups were banned from activities like the other political groups. Nevertheless they continued their movements hidden after 1978 Saur coup and communist regime takeover and specially after Russia invaded Afghanistan.
Some of loyal members to Eng. Ghulam Mohammad Farhad fought against the communist government. Because of that Eng. Ghulam Mohammad Farhad the founder of the party and some of its members were arrested in November 1978 in Hafizulah Amin’s era. They were accused of plotting coup against the government.
Eng. Ghulam Mohammad Farhad was freed after Russia invasion and Babrak Karmal takeover. He died in Kabul in 1984. The groups which split from Afghan Mellat at the end of democracy decade and had published the Afghan weekly cooperated with the Taraki’s communist regime after 1978 Saur coup. Led by Habibula Rafei, they joined the communist party (PDAP) in 1983 during Babrak Karmal’s era and annihilated the Afghan Mellat. .
A group led by Mohammad Amin Wakman who called himself as the leader of the Afghan Mellat Party supported the Russian puppet communist regime through issuing a statement in India in 1983.
Another group led by Qodratulah Hadad, Eng. Ghulam Mohammad Farhad’s stepbrother, immigrated to Pakistan after Afghanistan occupation and published Afghan Mellat and Esteqlal (Independece) as the publication organ of the AFGHAN MELLAT NATIONAL PROGRESSIVE PARTY. How ever it did not work because Pakistan and Jihadi groups did not support it.
As a result of new internal interactions in the party Afghan Mellat emerged as three new groups. A group led by Shamsolhoda Shams, a group led by Mohammad Amin Wakman and the third led by Qodratulah Hadad. These were the Afghan Mellat remainders.
The Wakman‘s group sent a delegation to Germany and linked with German’s social democrat party. This group is said to split from the Afghan Mellat and established the people democratic party or urban fighters in 1983. Then they managed to publish a journal named as Afghan Mellat. A group entitled Nation Party led by Abd al-hamid Yaqin Yousefzai joined the communist regime in December 1987 and announced their cooperation with Najib’s government. Yosefzai as the deputy of the Afghan Mellat Party interviewed with BBC radio in 4th June 2002 and criticized strongly the urgent Loyagergeh. He called all the government officials and heads that were selected in Loyajergeh as murder, thief, smuggler and plunderer.
In 1990, various groups of Afghan Mellat united again and held the second congress of the party in 8th and 9th March 1990 in Peshawar city of Pakistan. 500 members were supposed to participate at the congress of which 390 members attended. These appointed Dr. Mohammad Amin Wakman who was America’s resident at that time as the leader of the Afghan Mellat Party, Setanehgol Shirzad as the general secretary and 29 others as the supreme council members. Qudratolah Hadad and Yaqin Yousefzai were selected as the secretariat members, but Shamsolhoda shams From Konar province and some of his supporters did not attend at the elections. A branch of the Afghan Mellat opposed the Dr. Najib’s regime through plotting a coup named as Tanai-hekmatyar coup and insisted on war continuation until the government collapse.
It is to be noted that the Pakistan government did not recognize the Afghan Mellat as a party and Hetmatyar’s forces suppressed the members of the Afghan Mellat in Jihad era.
In September 1991, Dr. Sa’adat Shajiwal and Taj Mohmmad Khan, two Afghan Mellat activists, were murder by unknown figures in Peshawar.
Dr. Sa’adat Shajiwal was killed in 27th March 1990 near Sebghatulah Mojadadi’home. He was a member of central committee of the Afghan Mellat and also a manager of aiding association to Afghan refugees.
In 1995 a part of members and supporters of the Afghan Mellat who were Eng. Ghulam Mohammad Farhad’s fellows held a congress in Germany and appointed Dr. Anwaralhaq Ahadi as the head of the party.
In new manifesto of the Afghan Social Democrat Party led by Mr. Ahadi it has been indicated that the ASDP congress had held in Peshawar city of Pakistan in which the new manifesto had been written in three sections of poitical, social and economical issues. ASDP has the following political agenda as part of its manifesto:
In the basic political values ASDP respects the national sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country and national governance and does not deal with one on these issues. ASDP insists on national Islamic character of the Afghanistan government. ASDP urges single official system and rejects the federal system based on ethnic desperation and individual identity.
ASDP supports the effective role of Islam religion on the government and the society and believes in judiciary system based on Hanafi jurisprudence. The only illegal government is achieved through free elections.
ASDP supports in general the democracy and democratic values and prefers parliamentary democracy and relevant representative. ASDP considers free activation of the parties as an urgent issue for the democracy. ASDP, however, insists that antidemocratic parties should be banned for not being able to demolish the democracy misusing the liberties.
ASDP believes in and stands for the rights of all citizens of Afghanistan to have the freedom. These rights could not be rejected by any minorities or majorities. ASDP supports non-government economical, social and technological associations. ASDP believes that widening these associations leads to improving and strengthening the democracy. It urges permanent relations of the Afghan refugees with the country. ASDP supports friendly relations with all countries of the world and particularly with Islamic and our neighboring countries. Non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries and not allowing other countries to intervene in the internal affair of our country are the fundamental principles of our foreign policy. Any disputes among countries must be resolved though peaceful means and dialogues. We oppose ammunition competition in the region. ASDP seeks for human rights all over the world.
ASDP has the following social and cultural agenda as part of its manifesto:
ASDP gives special significance to Islamic thoughts in Afghanistan culture and also emphasizes the diversities in Afghan culture. ASDP urges boosting cultural relations with other countries and civilizations. ASDP respects all languages spoken in the country, but in line with the Constitution recognizes only Pashto and Dari as the country’s two official languages
ASDP recognizes and defends the women’s rights in political, social and economical affairs. Women should be illegible to elect and be elected at local, provincial and national level within the framework of the national constitution. They should be able to work and gain sufficient salaries.
Measures should be taken to provide proper educational fortunes for both men and women. ASDP supports free of charge education for all the citizens. In higher education ASDP emphasizes high quality training and its experimental aspects. We want to empower Afghanistan sciences, Islamic values, nationalizing, patriotism, national unity, democracy and humanism in trainees and students. ASDP believes in legitimacy of sciences and supports free scientific researches. It opposes any restrictions on science and scientific researches and supports upbringing, complaisance, national music and sport games.
ASDP (Afghan mellat) has eagle symbol and light sapphire flag. Afghan Mellat is its periodical. ASDP organ is composed of congress, higher council, executive council, secretary, central office and commissions. The above goals belong to Mr. Ahadi’s wing and Afghan Mellat is not a defragmented party. The former wings call themselves Afghan Mellat Party. They probably have different ideas. Among these wings is Shamsolhoda Shams’s wing that is based in Jalalabad city. The Pashtun social democrat party based in Germany recognizes this wing and identifies Mr. Shams as the leader of the Afghan Mellat Party in Afghanistan. Mr Shams passed away in October 2005. His burial ceremony was held in November 19th October in Kabul.
1- Eng. M.B. Mesbahzade, ““The commence and terminate of political movements in Afghanistan”, pp. 314-320.
2- D. Panjshiri, “Emerge and collapse of People Democratic Party of Afghanistan” 1st ed. 1998, Peshawar, pp. 167-168.
3- Booklet for Activists of People Democratic Party of Afghanistan (questions and answers), p. 13.
4- Ariayei website, Message of Academician D. Panjshiri to historical secession in 8th June 2003, Malmoly Sweden.
5- M.A. Ekram, Years of invasion and resistance, 1st ed. 2004, Peyman publication. pp.
Author: Mohammas Bagher Mesbahzade