Dastgir Panjsheri recognizes Modern Democratic Society as follower of an organization called "Gond Mardom", set up by Dr,Abdul-Al-Rahman Khan Mahmoodi in prison, as he asserted, and wrote as follows about this organization relations with Eternal Flame: "This organization and hidden fire was active in secrete, there were seven followers of Mahmoodi's methods of glorious campaign in the leadership of the organization. Aman Mahmoodi, Dr.Hosein Behruz, Ostad Mohsen Sahraee, Dr. Mosleh, Dr.Rahim Mahmoodi, Dr.Hadi Mahmoodi, and Musa Nehmat were outstanding leaders of "Gond Mardom.(6) " Dr. Abdul-Al-Rahman Mahmoodi reinforced his ties with society, Communist movement and modern generation of revolutionaries via this circle of his supporters, fellowmen and students. This hidden fire changed to people's angry flames and modern democratic ideas during decade of democratic campaigns (1963-1973). Political unity, ideological and organizational leadership of the organization was exposed to instability and separation, in a manner that experienced and was influenced by bloody repressions and became a victim of their own world politics and modern democratic ideas, within ten years of USSR presence and penetration.(7)
Practically, Maoist group, Eternal Flame, started publicly in 1347LHY (1969), as some Maoists have implied, regardless of Eternal Flame connections with earlier organizations or moments. The names of founders of this group are as follows:
1- Dr. Rahim Mahmoodi, Dr.Abdul-Al-Rahman Mahmoodi's brother, founder of Khalgh Party.
2- Dr. Hadi Mahmoodi, Dr.Abdul-Al-Rahman Mahmoodi's brother.
3- Abdulla Mahmoodi, Dr.Abdul-Al-Rahman Mahmoodi's brother.
4- Dr.Mohmmad Akram Yari, offspring of Mr. Abdulla Khan,one of Jaghori's Khans and Zaher Shah's adopted son who was arrested and disappeared after 7th Saor coup.
5- Dr. Mohammad Sadeq Yari,Dr Mohammad Akram Yari's brother.
6- Engineer Osman, popular to Osman Landay"flame" professor in Science Department, Kabul Universtiy.
7- Dr.Azam Dadfar,current high education minister in Karzai Cabinet.
8- Dr, Feiz Mohammad Kandahari, later became the leader of Freedom(Rahaee) organization.
9- Vasef Bakhtari, a popular poet who kept his distance from Communist-Maoist ideas.
10- Mohammad Issac Moztareb Bakhtari Laghmani, Professor in Literature Department.
11- Abdulhamid Kalakani,leader and founder of "SAMA" group.
12- Abdullah Rastakhiz Mazari.
13- Saidal Sokhandan.
14- Dr. Sayyed Kazem Dadgar, professor in Medical Science Department, who was arrested by Communist Regime and disappeared.
16- Mohammad Azim, the head of Cartography in Mine and industry ministry and responsible of "Sarkha" group.
Eternal Flame weekly started its activity as Modern Democratic Society publication in Hamal (Farvardin) 1347LHY = (4th April 1968) and after that this Maoist movement found fame as Eternal Flame in Afghanistan as usual. Dr. Rahim Mahmoodi was the man of authority and editor of the publication and his brother Hadi Mahmoodi cooperated with him. This weekly publication stopped on the threshold of 13th round of National Consultative Assembly (Loy Jirga) election after 11 issues in Sartan(Tir) 1348LHY = 10th July, 1969).
The process of Eternal Flame campaigns, at the beginning, was based on Mao Tse-Tung's Marxism-Leninism theory was founded upon three main principles of Long term and enraged mass (people) war, Siege of cities via villages, outstanding rule of peasants in Socialist revolution victory in backward countries with dependent economy on agriculture.
In relations to political directions, Flamists who in fact were devoted supporters of Chinese Communists were publicizing against Russia and former Soviet Union calling that county Social-Imperialism and revisionists like the Chinese. They pursued Chinese policy for internal policy and did not participate publicly in 12th and 13th round of National Assembly election probably, since they were against Parliamentary campaigns.
Flamists were deeply involved in marches during the late decade of Zaher Shah Kingdom. Primarily, they raise their voices against USSR and their related parties, United States and other Imperialist countries, later on started combat with Muslim members, particularly, Muslim Youth. In 1351LHY (1973), a violent fight between Muslim students and Flamists in Kabul University took place. On 29th, Jauza(Khordad)1351LHY(1973), when Muslim students had gathered in front of Law Faculty in protest of sacrileges, shouting against Communists in response to their insults and offenses a fight happened between Flamists and Muslims, and two sides attacked to each other with knives, stones and sticks, resulted to some injuries from both groups and Saidal Sokhandan, a cadre of Flamists, a member of Science Department Students alliance, was murdered , being hit on his head, Shaker one of the other Flamists was injured, taken to hospital by his friends, nine members of Muslims Youth Group such as Hekmatyar, Nasratyar, Habib-Al-Rahman, and Mohammad Omar were taken to prison and some of Flamists were arrested due this fight, as well.
Flamists had allocated the relative majority of representatives in Students alliance in Kabul from 1349LHY (1971) to 1351LHY (1973), moreover, Afghanistan Universities Professors alliance was established with their initiative in 1351LHY (1973) where most of the positions were filled with Flamists, as they claim. The situation changed for the favor of Muslim forces during the election of Students alliance in 1352LHY (1974), and out of 54 university areas, 44 were attributed to Muslim forces and 5 university areas to Flamists.
According to some Flaimsts confession later on, Eternal Flame were weak and lacked any national long or even short term purposes and programs organizationally at first, contrary to Afghanistan People Democratic Party.
Eternal Flame disintegration and manifestation of numerous Maoist groups
The reason for internal disagreements and disintegration of Eternal Flame (Sholeh-e-Javid) was the formation and growth of the group based on external, one sided activities and absence of attention to internal campaigns, as a result, they could not learn about different methods and views inside the group, and internal conflicts rose and intensified, according to Afghan Maoists.
When feelings overcome wisdom and logic the result is external, one sided activities, extremism and rudeness. Therefore, one of Maoists and Communists reasons for extremism and rudeness comes from their feelings overcoming over their wisdom and logic, which played a fundamental role in their internal disagreements, fights and to some extent their bloody inner-group purifications. The confrontation of Maoists with all other, Moscow related, Islamic and national groups due to their rudeness and extremism, from one hand, incompetence of China in managing and supporting Maoist groups in third world countries form other hand, made the internal intensions among leadership members of Eternal Flame and in 1349LHY(1971) this group fell apart.
In the first stage, nearly six wings, on the basis of individuals, formed after the conflicts intensified in Eternal Flame, which follows:
1- a wing led by the Mahmoodies
2- a wing led by the Yaries
3- Engineer Osman Landi's wing
4- Majid Kalakani's wing
5- Abdulla Mazari's wing
6- Bamyani's wing.
Progressive Youth Organization (Sazeman-e- Javanan-e- Motaraghi)
There is vagueness regarding Progressive Youth Organization, if this organization is the same Eternal Flame (Modern Democratic Society) or one of its separated wings. Some writings indicate, during the first separation, a wing called "Progressive Youth Organization" was established under the leadership of Mohammad Akram Yari, because they thought the situations in Afghanistan were not favorable for establishment of a Communist Revolutionary Party, accordingly, progressive and intellectual organizations should be formed to prepare the outlines for mental growth and people mobilization until the right time to form a revolutionary party.
Some Maoists never speak of a group named " Modern Democratic Society" and claim Progressive Youth Organization to be the first kernel of Maoism in Afghanistan, formed in Mizan (Mehr) 1344LHY(1966). Ignorance of opponent wings and all-purpose self-centeredness is one of specifications of Parties and group customs in Afghanistan. Problems in Islamic Party and Islamic Population groups over leadership and the commencement of Islamic movement testify this tradition.
Ideological problems among Maoists increased after first separation to a point that ended in several separations and annihilation of Eternal Flame Group or Modern Democratic Society. A number of people led by Abdul Majid Kalakani objected to Progressive Youth Organization, publishing their ideas in a booklet called "Historical back- views" criticizing the mentioned organization. Progressive Youth Organization supporters defended themselves by publishing writing under the name of "Better supportonism" and inflamed internal arguments fire. Thus, some Maoists called themselves "the Oppressed Party" and some others formed Osman Landi 's group and Afghanistan People( Khalgh) revolutionary Party.
1- Agha Bakhshi, Ali, Political Science Lexicon, Tondar Publication, first impression, 1336LHY(1958), page 157.
2- Defacto, dejure
3- Bamdad, Mohammad, legends and truth about Mao( translation and editing), Hafteh Publication, second impression, Dey 2nd 1363LHY(1985), page 120.
4- The same source page 165.
5- The same source, page.
6- The same source, page 185.
7- Panjsheri, arrest, appearance and downfall of Afghanistan People Democratic Party, First Section, Jady 11th 1377LHY(1999), page 124.
Source: "Commencement and Consequences of Political Movements in Afghanistan" book.
Author: Sayed Mohammad Baqer Mesbahzadeh